When alternating changes in dimension are in phase, the potential for alternating dimensions to knot is realized.

Knotting creates tension. When the ‘string’ is pulled and the knot comes apart, energy is released. Where does that energy come from?

Quantization of flucutations are fluctua.

flucuta are pre-photons, pre-interphasing of flucutations.

Knots are formed when fluctuations intertangle. Fluctuations tangle when fluctua are drawn from differentiated spatial areas into the same spatial area.

Equal and opposite changes in dimension are fluctua.

Tension is created by negative dimensions; visualize curved fluctuations of space, pulling on each other.

When the knot untangles, energy is released.

The energy profile:

changes in dimension phase:

energy = change in dimension

** change in non-equilibrium dimension is expressed as non-equilibrium energy**

How does fluctua happen?

non-equilibrium dimension has symmetry breaking*.

0. energy profile of a fluctua

fluctua is non-equilibrium dimension.

There is potential for entropy increase.

0; +0 / -0

From 0 to: +0 relative to -0 = entropy increase.

There is potential for the occurrence of fluctua. The occurrence of fluctua increases entropy.

The fluctua entropy profile is that of a time crystal.

entropy of electromagnetic waves = 0

“The significance of our work is two-fold: on one hand, it demonstrates that time-translation symmetry is not immune to being spontaneously broken,” said coauthor Bela Bauer, a researcher at Microsoft Station Q. “On the other hand, it deepens our understanding that non-equilibrium systems can host many interesting states of matter that cannot exist in equilibrium systems.”

Read more at: “https://phys.org/news/2016-09-crystals.html#jCp”>https://phys.org/news/2016-09-crystals.html

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/257232/do-gravitational-waves-have-entropy

As stated in the comment by Peter Diehr, the question is in principle no different whether you ask it for electromagnetic, gravitational or any other kind of wave. The wave’s entropy is simply the conditional Shannon entropy of the specification needed to define the wave’s full state given knowledge of its macroscopically measured variables. A theoretical gravitational wave defined by a full solution of the Einstein Field equations has an entropy of zero just as a full solution of Maxwell’s equations does; if you know at the outset that the wave has come from a lone black hole whose state is known, then measurement of the amplitude, polarization and arrival time alone will fully define the wave (the six independent, modulo gauge, components of the metric tensor at your position).

But from these perfectly defined states, gravitational wave and light wave systems can take on “imprints” from their interactions with the World around them in many ways, so that any set of macroscopic measurements of a wave leaves much about the wave’s state that is unknown.

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/257232/do-gravitational-waves-have-entropy

entropy of electromagnetic waves = 0

http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1998-08/897271685.Ph.r.html

symmetry breaking.

0. energy profile of a fluctua

0; +0 / -0

From 0 to: +0 relative to -0 = entropy increase.

The fluctua entropy profile is that of a time crystal.

Flat space is ordered. A fluctua is an increase in disorder.

Equal and opposite relativity defines positive energy relative to negative energy: which is potential positive energy relative to potential negative energy.

When non-equilibrium energy phases, it acquires equilibrium.

Which is positive dimension relative to negative dimension.

Is it antimatter? anti-definition? because the wave dip goes away.

When phased, the decrease in potential results in an increase in potential in another dimension, the third dimension.

1. Energy over a distance, di (distance infinite), is concentrated in an area with distance, df (distance finite).

1a. Energy is transferred like a locomotive pulling cars and building momentum. Energy from all of the cars is transferred to the locomotive when the locomotive crashes into a train coming from the other direction.

2. energy density = knot density

*https://phys.org/news/2016-09-crystals.html

As phased fluctua gravitate toward each other, entropy increases:

When gravity causes an object to collapse on itself, it reduces the number of possible positions that the particles could be in, exactly analogous to how removing the divider in the cylinder increases the number of possible positions for the gas particles. However, the collapse also heats up the object, and hotter objects have particles with greater momentum, so the number of possible momentum states that each particle can be in increases even more, causing the overall entropy to increase.